According to Davis (2017), symptoms of adult onset hypogonadism, in other words, low testosterone levels include:
- erectile dysfunction.
- low sperm count.
- depressed mood.
- decreased libido.
- sleep disturbances.
- decreased muscle mass and strength.
- loss of body hair of pubic, axillary, and facial areas
- osteoporosis and decreased bone mineral density
- increased body fat
- breast discomfort and enlargement
- hot flashes
- poor concentration and decreased energy
Male hypogonadism, also known as testosterone deficiency, is a failure of the testes to produce the male
sex hormone testosterone, sperm, and in some cases, both. It can be due to a testicular disorder or the result of a disease process affecting the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland. Hypogonadism can affect many organ functions and it can have a negative impact on quality of life. The signs and symptoms depend on how severe the deficiency is. Hypogonadism may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Situations that can cause secondary hypogonadism include:
- systemic illness
- medication side effects
- liver cirrhosis
- toxins (alcohol and heavy metals)
- morbid obesity.
Andropause is a term often used to describe decreased testosterone in the aging male. Testosterone levels in males increase until the age of 17 years, however, decline approximately around 40 years of age.
Risk factors for hypogonadism include type 2 diabetes, obesity, renal failure, HIV, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and taking glucocorticoid (steroids), opioid or antipsychotic medication therapy. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the recommended treatment for male hypogonadism and normally given by injection. Oral forms of testosterone are not used. TRT can eliminate many, if not all, of the signs and symptoms of male hypogonadism (Davis, 2017).
Davis, K. (2017, November 23). What you need to know about male hypogonadism. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/307634